"Selfishness beats altruism within groups. Altruistic groups beat selfish groups. Everything else is commentary." -- E. O. Wilson
I thought I knew how HUAC and the blacklist worked, but now I'm not sure. In the case of Elia Kazan, for example, they say Kazan actually stood up to the committee and refused to implicate his friends the first time he testified. Later, he named names.
What kind of pressure was put on Kazan to cooperate with HUAC between his first and second appearances? Who applied the screws? How many others defied the committee at first, then broke down and testified?